Jumat, 23 November 2012

How to print money (supposedly) imo

1. Allow people to issue sticker/papers declaring that:
This guy has helped me....

2. Through careful audits, acknowledge some of these papers nationwide to be usable as money.

Money is prove that the holder has provided help and hasn't been helped back appropriately.
The love of money is wanting the acknowledgement more than wanting to help.

Sistem Produksi uang

Uang adalah pengakuan bahwa orang ini adalah sumber solusi bagi saya...
Maka kalau mau memprint uang persyaratannya tidak boleh sembarangan seperti menerbitkan saham pada orang-orang yang baru (bukannya membagikan saham secara merata kepada orang-orang yang lama).

1. Izinkan orang menciptakan uang -> Surat pernyataan bahwa orang ini sudah menolong saya...
2. Resmikan surat-surat ini. Setelah melalui audit

Sabtu, 06 Oktober 2012

Assurance v.03

Time exist due to irreversibility of all interactions. Our intuition of time is that total interactions is always happening, irreversible, and therefore always new.

Love is the tendency to keep on experiencing interactions forever

Money is a guarantee that the holder has helped and hasn't been helped yet to a certain degree.

The scarcity of the world is not of time nor energy but of mutual solutions


Harta dan Kekayaan itu bagus untuk orang yang berjasa
Jabatan dan Status itu bagus untuk orang yang mau dan mampu untuk melaksanakannya

Kalau orang yang berjasa mempergunakan harta dan kekayaannya untuk meningkatkan kemauan dan kemampuannya untuk menolong orang lain, maka kenapa tidak bagus dia bersaing untuk mendapatkan dapat jabatan dan status?

Riches, goods and services are good for those who have helped people
Status and Jobs are good for those who are willing and able to perform them
If one who has helped people, used his/her riches to improve his/her willingness and ability to help other people, why not he/she compete for a status or a job?


Rabu, 03 Oktober 2012

The Golden Sticker system v.05


That's the link to my post about the golden sticker.
Now if this system were to be a new system of money, there's something I want to clear up.
When a person performed a service for you, you gave him/her a sticker of yours.
Now when that person was helped by another person, he will give that third guy his sticker.
And when you helped that third guy, he/she would give you his/her sticker.

That's it, don't over complicate things, there's no pairing, no matching, the sticker is not to be used like money. Like my father said, give and take.

Now, when you've consumed an intellectual products like music, programs, etc. You'd send him/her your stickers with some goods/services then he/she gave you his/her sticker. That's it. The golden sticker request is just my way of making popular of the system, since it hasn't became a standard yet.

How do people know how valuable your stickers are? What standard should be used? Gold? Silver?
I say you don't need to. You don't suppose to use the stickers to pay for something. Its a receipt. It's a statement that the holder has helped people, but it doesn't say whether or not the holder has or hasn't been helped back. Unlike money is a proof that the holder has performed some help and hasn't been helped back.

People who has a lot of receipts have paid to their sources of solutions. Those with no receipts either haven't paid to their sources of solutions or didn't use the system (or didn't use any solutions at all--really?)

Now you differenciate the value of the sticker by serial numbers and dates. Stickers handed out yesterday has different values with stickers handed out today. If the distinction was clear. Then confusion shouldn't arise. You yourself could post the values of each stickers for others to see.

There might be instances when criminals comitted crime to help you, maybe its your friend, or your stalker. You could gave him/her sticker but a Jesusfied sticker. Which means those that will help the guy not only help the guy casually but with forgiveness.
And between you and him/her, you could help him/her personally because he/she has helped you but that's it. It's up to the society whether or not they would forgive him/her.

In terms of stickers for inclinations, see my previous post.

Sabtu, 29 September 2012

I need Jesus in my system v.03

Jesus has paid for all evil, all order in order to disorder, all for uselessness with expensive price, eternal price.
I need Jesus in my system

This is my attempt http://melkihelped.blogspot.com/2012/09/jesus-in-system.html

You see that I gave thanks to inclinations as they are individuals.
Evil inclinations are used in this world and one or two including myself could experience enjoyment or safety or use because of it, direct, or indirectly.
Jesus has paid for all evil and we don't have to give thanks to evil. Jesus has paid with His blood, Satan consumed Him who was innocent, by God's law it's unfair to consume Jesus because He is Holy and without sin. Therefore Satan has used a very expensive and eternal price that according to God's law is not his.
Now God won't consider bad those who won't pay to satan and dwells in Jesus.

Therefore now we who believe and loved Jesus and loved by Jesus don't need to pay back to evil inclinations. In this system, you give Jesusfied sticker, without having to perform services or give goods for evil purposes. That Jesusfied stickers declare that all has been paid by Jesus, such uses have been paid by Jesus.

Give the stickers to who? Just declare the sticker at your "Golden Sticker request" page.

In practice this is how it might work:
- One kills another person
- That killed guy tried to kill you.
- You owe to that one and also the to inclination to kill/destroy.
- You help that one, but you don't have to kill another person / living things.
- You declared a Jesusfied sticker to the inclination to kill/destroy.

Kamis, 27 September 2012

For the new world

Resources should be allocated based on skill, not based on likeness or because the guy is "my family"
People will become families with each other, resources firstly allocated to meet basic needs of all.
But then after that it would be all about skill. (Social skill is also a skill, but there would be a clear distinction of what the allocation was all about.(No time for unnecessary hassle, just work)).

Jobs should not be rewards, people who have done honorable deeds should be given assets, not jobs.
Job should always be about the willingness and the ability to help people.
If you've done honorable things, do you inclined to give more or would you take more? Honorable people rewarded with high position jobs might use their job to enrich themselves. Just give them things, don't give them jobs.


Selasa, 25 September 2012

The Problematic Inclination v.02

The inclination to prioritize,
To put first, the (real (according to Jesus Mat 25: 31-42)) emergency of human beings.

The inclination to settle first, the emergency of human beings.

This must be lovely. Jesus' orders were reasonable.

Selasa, 11 September 2012

Ultimate Humanism

Life is the ability to reject interactions.
A rock can't reject being thrown far into the sea.

Therefore the ultimate humanism is to keep for all humans the ability to reject being controlled by other people.
Monopoly of food, is my main concern now, when companies collude to rise food prices, this would not be in align with humanism. We as part of humanity should be able to have access to food, and to have the power to reject interruptions against our access to food.

Minggu, 02 September 2012

Suffering and Dignity

One source of skill is sufferings, sufferings motivate people to create skills.
Different sufferings yields to different skills.
Even though people don't always have to suffer in order to learn some skills, but skills that came from sufferings are unique to the type of sufferings.

So, if you make other people experience your sufferings, you'll be less unique, and you'll lose the power of bargain or the power to sell your skill.
I believe different people have different sufferings, I want not to disrespect the simpleness of one's skill or to grandify the complexity of another over other people's.

However people who tend to make other people feel bad the way they had felt before... in my theory, they might trapped into a position where people respected them less.

Rabu, 15 Agustus 2012

When are you adult enough? v.08

Some may think that 15 year olds should be given the right to decide for themselves. They are capable of making reasonable decisions.
But as long as you still think that bad people are cool, you are not adult enough because you're still looking for that system to protect yourself.
Whatever your age, the answer to the question is bad things are bad, and their solutions are repulsive, incompatible to be used for life, no matter how 'cool' those violence, insults, and exclusivism may seemed to be.
Good solutions use laws, agreements, and self control in order to enable people to connect and help each other better. That just simply true.
Coolness are mostly lies, they are just for show.

But Coolness could be true if its achieved from good deeds, mutual solutions. But its much easier to look cool than to actually build and maintain mutual solutions.

So don't let your smart 15 year olds be free from corrections, they need you whether they like it or not

Selasa, 07 Agustus 2012

Pasar Sentral Makassar, irresponsible unjust.

After the fire in Makassar Mall, my uncle who got his store ok, not burned by fire, was given an eviction notice without any compensation or whatsoever.
The notice told him to leave his store because of safety concerns. So they're going to rebuild the building regardless of my uncle, who has paid his rent for another 7 years, still using his store for trading.


Pihak pengelola Makassar Mall mengusir om saya yang tokonya tidak terbakar. Katanya demi alasan keamanan. Jadi tidak ada ganti rugi walaupun tokonya masih utuh tidak terbakar dan masih bisa dipake berdagang oleh om saya yang sudah membayar sewa untuk 7 tahun lagi.
Kembalikanlah uang sewa itu

Minggu, 05 Agustus 2012

Hubungan antara pemilu dan buang sampah

Undang-Undang mengatur bahwa pemerintah memiliki wewenang besar dalam pengelolaan sampah. 
Setahu saya, (mungkin saja salah) termasuk:
a. menetapkan  kebijakan  dan  strategi  pengelolaan  sampah  berdasarkan
kebijakan nasional dan provinsi;
b. menyelenggarakan  pengelolaan  sampah  skala  kabupaten/kota  sesuai
dengan  norma,  standar,  prosedur,  dan  kriteria  yang  ditetapkan  oleh
c. melakukan pembinaan dan pengawasan kinerja pengelolaan sampah yang
dilaksanakan oleh pihak lain;
d. menetapkan lokasi tempat penampungan sementara, tempat pengolahan
sampah terpadu, dan/atau tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah;
e. melakukan pemantauan dan evaluasi secara berkala setiap 6 (enam) bulan
selama 20 (dua puluh) tahun terhadap tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah
dengan sistem pembuangan terbuka yang telah ditutup; dan
f. menyusun  dan  menyelenggarakan  sistem  tanggap  darurat  pengelolaan
sampah sesuai dengan kewenangannya.

Seandainya kita suka buang sampah sembarangan, kita akan melayani kecenderungan untuk kotor. Dan seiring berkembangnya sistem / administrasi / hukum di dalam diri kita yang mendukung kekotoran, kita akan terhubung menjadi bagian dari kecenderungan untuk kotor.

Kecenderungan untuk kotor akan berusaha memilih pemimpin yang tidak baik,
Kecenderungan untuk kotor akan berusaha menggagalkan undang-undang ini.
Dan pada saat kita tidak menyadarinya, kita yang buang sampah sembarangan akan semakin cenderung untuk memilih pemimpin yang "tidak menghormati undang-undang".
Karena sekarang kecenderungan untuk kotor sudah berlawanan dengan undang-undang.

Tujuan saya menulis ini adalah untuk kita sadar akan hal ini dan secara sengaja membuat administrasi ekstra sebagai penyeimbang/penetralisir melawan kecenderungan melawan undang-undang.

Selasa, 24 Juli 2012

Saat dimana kerja keras berarti negatif v.05

Kapan kerja keras itu negatif?
Ketika kerja keras itu sebenarnya bisa dikerjakan oleh orang lain, atau banyak yang mau melakukan pekerjaan itu.
Contoh: Uang seratus juta akan diberikan kepada yang dapat memperbaiki jalan sejauh 10 kilo. 1000 orang bisa melakukan itu, masing-masing dibayar 100,000 rupiah dan mereka dapat menyelesaikannya dalam 1 hari. Tapi karena ada yang mau 'kerja keras' akhirnya jalan itu harus diselesaikan selama satu bulan, dimana uang itu seluruhnya diserahkan kepada dia. Jadi dia bukannya mempercepat malah memperlambat. http://melkisblog.blogspot.com/2012/06/salary-system-guardians-of-inclination.html

Kemudian mungkin ada yang berpikir bahwa konsep ini kapitalistik dimana saya mendukung mesin-mesin menggantikan manusia. Ya benar, kalau mesin-mesin bisa menyelesaikan pekerjaan lebih dari manusia maka sebaiknya manusia berenti saja.
Tapi pembagiannya yang penting, lihat http://melkisblog.blogspot.com/2012/07/cara-membuat-hidup-lebih-baik-lagi-v02.html

Dan disinilah kekristenan itu sangat penting, sumber dari segala solusi adalah Tuhan, dan Tuhan Yesus adalah juruselamat yang mengatakan kerajaan Tuhan ada di dalam manusia, dan Dia adalah Cinta. Dengan demikian cara membayar kepada Dia sumber segala solusi yang positif adalah dengan cara membayar kepada orang miskin seperti yang tertulis di Matius 25: 31 - 46

Jumat, 13 Juli 2012

USA, please

Mitt Romney, Obama, both facilitate USA's attitude as the police of the world, the leader of the world. Please USA please, you're no longer that, your economy is now in a cocoon in my best opinion. So USA you need to rest that attitude for a while and choose to act like a middle class developing country as you are now.
Work together with Brazil, Indonesia, India to balance out China and Russia. And Mitt Romney, you need to resign and let Ron Paul lead the country. His humble approach maybe subject to ridicule from you, but opportunistically, he has the right attitude.

Unless ofcourse USA plan on utilizing unethical monetary policy, altering world's value of money, and risking the quality of representation of money on people's performed services.
(I think that money is prove that the holder has performed services and deserved to be helped back).

Rabu, 13 Juni 2012

Makassar Mall Eviction Notice

After the fire in Makassar Mall, my uncle who got his store ok, not burned by fire, was given an eviction notice without any compensation or whatsoever.
The notice told him to leave his store because of safety concerns. So they're going to rebuild the building regardless of my uncle, who has paid his rent for another 7 years, still using his store for trading.


Pihak pengelola Makassar Mall mengusir om saya yang tokonya tidak terbakar. Katanya demi alasan keamanan. Jadi tidak ada ganti rugi walaupun tokonya masih utuh tidak terbakar dan masih bisa dipake berdagang oleh om saya yang sudah membayar sewa untuk 7 tahun lagi.

Makassar butuh Keindahan

Makassar butuh monumen yang indah. Kenapa hal seperti ini penting / berguna?
Karena di dalam keindahan ada kesepakatan.
Kesepakatan akan administrasi-administrasi yang dapat memecahkan masalah.
Hal-hal yang indah adalah formasi yang dianggap membawa kepada pemecahan-pemecahan masalah.

Karena keindahan gunanya adalah kesepakatan, jangan bikin monumen yang bernuansa agama, jangan bikin monumen yang bernuansa adat, jangan bikin monumen yang bernuansa eksklusif.
Bikinlah monumen yang diterima oleh semua orang.

Permasalahannya adalah banyak bentuk yang indah, tapi kalau setiap orang punya pemikiran yang berbeda di benaknya, butuh waktu yang lama, dan administrasi yang mahal untuk mempersatukannya. Kalau ada monumen yang indah, maka setidaknya banyak orang dapat memiliki keindahan yang mirip di benaknya, dan mereka dapat cepat untuk membentuk formasi karena sudah saling mengenal satu sama lain.

Lihat Jakarta, monumennya begitu sederhana, monas... kurang begitu indah. Mereka butuh banyak monumen-monumen kecil, yang kurang begitu menarik juga. Menurut saya mereka akhirnya dapat sinkronisasinya hanya setelah ada formasi tata ruang yang indah.

Singapore, New York, London, Paris, telah menerapkan monumen-monumen yang indah.
Makassar mungkin dapat membuat monumen juga, dalam bentuk yang universal, seperti pohon tua yang terkenal. Rimbun, Kokoh, Berbatang Ganda, Berdahan-Dahan yang Subur, Berbuah banyak.

Rabu, 16 Mei 2012

Deflation oriented Bank new procedure v.05

To make the deflation oriented bank at least plausible to be implemented, people could start by implementing these policies:

1. Still give people interests for deposits
2. Give people the option to sign a petition that says they would not withdrew their money while its being used in lending, and the bank has no other alternative to replace the amount.

Now people who agreed to this policy would be given extra interests rate but not much, like 0.3%, and people who disagreed got lower interest rates by the same margin.

People whose money ended up being used, and therefore became binded by the contract, got an increase of interest rates by 1%.
And since the risk of default was a bit lower, the loan interest rates could also be lowered by 0.8%

Now throughout time hopefully this method gets more and more popular. So the true spirit of the philosophy could be implemented. Those that don't put their money at risk would get even less interest, Those who are in the que would get slightly higher interest. And those who got themselves binded ended up deserving for 2% higher interests, like 7.5 to 8%.


This procedure could have a new advantage: People could get high interest rates without committing their money to 6, 12, even yearly periods like the way it is now. If the bank was rich, had many people queing for lending their money. Binders could withdrew their money anytime and the bank could just bind another person from the que list.
No obligation to wait, but in exchange the risk that the whole bank might default and you ended up giving away all of those money legally.

The role of central bank in this system would also change, the central bank now acts as a mediator. Some banks might experience low demands of borrowing, some high, the central bank borrowed with special rates from the banks that had a lot of reserves of committments and transferred it to the banks that needed more investors.

Update: Now I think comitters shouldn't be given high interests at all. This will just lead to similar banking system than before. I don't want that, so, comitters could be rewarded for their comittments, but only as much as marketing expenses, or, very little interests.
The nice way of making money out of money is to work the money, not piling credits over credits, it's just too dangerous and unethical. People should always be able to withdrew their money without feeling guilty.

Sabtu, 28 April 2012

Limit of Priority in Reality

Here's a question, is it reliable to say that if there were events that previously percieved had very little chance of happening, actually happened in real life, then there must be a reason behind it.
The reason would be an event that had high chance of occuring.
Therefore there's no such thing as low probability events ever took place, it's always a high probability events that took place in reality, we just didn't have the point of view yet.

For example: The probability of me falling from my bed without anyone pushing me is 1:1000000, but I did fell. There must be something that triggered my fell, there must be factor that's supposed to be included in the calculation but didn't.
Apparently if anyone observed the geological activity around my town, they'd figure out that the there was 90% chance that there going to be an earthquake at the night, and in case of an earthquake, the chance of me falling from my bed became 1:15.

Therefore, it'd be useful to find this limit or range of qualification of an event to be prioritized in reality. If a probability was too small beyond the limit, let's say maybe at about 1:1000000, but the event took place, then there must be a variable that we failed to took account. And it's an opportunity for us to learn about it.

Selasa, 03 April 2012

George Reisman on Deflation


Now in this blog, I kept on using the term "deflation" instead of "price lowering" because I want to emphasis the Anti-Inflation attitude of my idea.
I disagree to have the value of money constantly deteriorating, price increasing, and instead of having all the values distributed to sources of solutions, they got distributed to people who are the closets to the central bank. Which are the bankers.

NO! we must have a system that's sided with humanity, not with the betrayers. Let the first hand receivers of money be people in the rural areas. Lets have "Deflation" or Anti-Inflation oriented Banks

Kamis, 23 Februari 2012

Recent condition of pasar sentral (Makassar Mall) v.02

Pasar Central is one of the center of trade in Makassar, my uncle has a shop there, but currently they have to trade in another place since Pasar Central was on fire, and after people came and took away all of the metals of the buildings. My Uncle's shop is at the ground floor of the building and is at risk of any mishap that might occured after all that.

Following are photos proving of what they've done and that the government has done little to counter this actions:

Senin, 06 Februari 2012

Deflation oriented Bank v.04

The concept is to adjust all principals of investment and return of investments to inflation/deflation level. So if you borrow 100 dollars, and the inflation rate was 1%, you should return 101 dollars of principals plus interest. But if deflation occured 1%, you should return only 99 dollars plus interest

In deflation oriented banks, depositors would be given two accounts. The first type only saves money but yields any/no interests. The second one was an investment account, whenever someone borrowed money, the bank would transfer depositor's money from the regular account to the investment account, in which then the depositors would earn interests. The interest given as the reward for providing liquidity to borrowers. When the time is due for the money to be returned, the principal return would be adjusted to inflation/deflation rate as well.

In a strong bank, depositors should be able to withdrew money from the investment account anytime, because the system could access enough cash to replace the lending. In even stronger banks, all of depositors' money could be put in the investment account, because the bank had a lot of borrowers and has enough liquid capital of its own, to support the lending.

Now if the system was widely adopted, banks that experienced more borrowing demands than the cash that were available for them could request deposits from the central bank. The central bank then would look for other banks that had surplus of deposits, negotiate, and transfered the money to the previous banks after they agreed of a terms and conditions. If all banks experienced too much borrowing demands, the central bank could provide for them from its reserve.

If this system works well, governments could reduce or even not collect taxes from their citizens. To fund their projects and expenses, they would just print money. Printed money could also be distributed to remote areas, or to farmers, so people in more prosperous places would venture to the remote areas and brought with them goods and services or even infrastructures to improve their welfare.

Our scarcity is not of time nor energy nor money, our scarcity is of solutions, mutual solutions. And solutions are unlimited, people could keep on creating solutions and therefore create deflations, good deflations, one that improve the level of ease of access to essentialities.

Ofcourse government should not print money based on deflation made from consuming unsustainable products. Deflation of gas prices should not initiate the printing of money, unlike lets say an invention of a variety of rice that could consume sea water productively.

Sabtu, 28 Januari 2012

Perpustakaan public domain

Di perpustakaan ini, bisa memprintkan hukum-hukum yang berlaku, putusan pengadilan, dan dokumen-dokumen publik lainnya.
Print menggunakan kertas daur ulang yang diambil dari sampah kantor kantor.
Perpustakaan bagus kalau bisa mendaur ulang kertas sendiri, dan punya mesin percetakan.
Kemudian di perpustakaan pengunjung kena charge murah setiap kali masuk,
Di perpustakaan dapat disertakan warung kopi atau cafe, dan juga perpustakaan ini dapat menerima order materi yang mau di print oleh pengunjung.

Di perpustakaan kemudian di pajang foto-foto atau iklan iklan tentang karya original sponsor. Sehingga karya-karya seni, teknologi, yang adalah kekayaan intelektual dapat disebarkan dan konsumen tahu secara langsung kepada siapa donasi atau tanda terimakasih mereka sepantasnya disalurkan.

Kamis, 19 Januari 2012

Lampu lalu lintas untuk motor

Karena sudah dibikin jalur khusus untuk motor (jalur kuning sebelah kiri) maka menurut saya diperlukan lampu lalu lintas khusus untuk motor.
Mobil di sebelah kanan yang mau berbelok ke kiri butuh motor untuk berhenti baru bisa berbelok ke kiri dengan lancar. Kalau harus menunggu motor-motor yang mau jalan lurus dan berbelok ke kanan dulu maka sedikit sekali mobil yang dapat berbelok ke kiri, dan mobil mobil yang mau lurus kalau ada di belakang mobil-mobil yang mau berbelok ke kiri harus menunggu lama, karena seharusnya kendaraan yang berjalan lurus (motor-motor di sebelah kiri) yang diutamakan terlebih dahulu.

Tapi kalau ada lampu lalu lintas khusus untuk motor maka masalah ini bisa teratasi. Motor bergantian jalan dengan mobil.

Selasa, 17 Januari 2012

New Word proposal

Want and Able = Wannable

Usage in a sentence: That guy is wannable to treat cancer
Meaning: That guy enjoys curing cancer.
Other usage: We must improve our son's wannability to study biology.

Bahasa Indonesia:

Mau dan Mampu = Maupu
Contoh Penggunaan = Pak Kades ingin meningkatkan kemaupuan rakyat untuk hidup tertib.

Rabu, 11 Januari 2012

Bank tahan Deflasi

Bank meminjamkan uang dengan pengembalian pokok disesuaikan dengan perubahan daya tukar uang / inflasi. Jadi kalau meminjam 100 sementara inflasi pada tahun saat pengembalian + 1% maka uangnya dikembalikan 101, dan kalau deflasi 1% uangnya dikembalikan 99 plus biaya jasa menyediakan likuidasinya (bunga).

Untuk Tabungan, masyarakat membuat menandatangani kontrak terlebih dahulu. Nasabah dibuatkan 2 akun, yang satu akun Tabungan yaitu akun penyimpanan uang, tidak diberi bunga dan dikenakan biaya administrasi & jasa penyimpanan. Akun selanjutnya adalah akun investasi, dimana kalau ada yang mau meminjam uang dari bank, maka uang tabungan nasabah ditransfer ke akun investasi dan kemudian dipinjamkan ke pengusaha. Akun investasi ini dapat bunga dan pokoknya dikembalikan sesuai inflasi juga (seperti di atas). Tentu saja di bank yang kuat yang banyak nasabahnya, orang dapat membuat kontrak untuk dapat mengambil uangnya dari akun investasi kapan saja.

Dengan begini nasabah dapat berpartisipasi dalam penentuan bunga juga. "Kalau saya menyediakan likuidasi buat komunitas bank ini, saya minta dibayar biaya jasa (bunga) sekian setiap periode...".

Kalau sudah banyak bank seperti ini, niscaya negara dapat membebaskan semua warga negara dari pajak, dan untuk membiayai proyek-proyek dan kebutuhannya cukup dengan memprint uang. Karena semuanya fokus untuk menciptakan deflasi, yaitu dengan cara meningkatkan penemuan / inovasi / solusi yang saling menguntungkan.

Keterbatasan di dunia ini bukanlah akan waktu, energi, ataupun uang... Melainkan keterbatasan akan solusi-solusi yang saling menguntungkan / tidak merugikan.